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DuPage County paternity lawyer

No matter what kind of relationship you share with your child’s mother or what your living arrangements will be after your child is born, it is important to understand a father’s rights and how to avoid jeopardizing yours. If you wish to be involved and have a say over parental matters in the future, the first step is to be aware that in Illinois, you are only considered the legal father if you are married to--or have entered into a civil union with--the mother at the time of birth. This means that your relationship with your child from the moment he or she is born will greatly revolve around where you stand legally on paper. 

Immediate Actions You Can Take to Protect Your Rights

There are some actions you can take to establish paternity in order to make sure your rights as a father are not violated. Below are some of the first steps in becoming legally recognized as the father of your child: 

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Who is the Legal Parent in Egg Donation Cases?Modern technology has assisted with the creation and growth of many families. Originally, natural conception and adoption were the only two options available to those who wish to have children or increase the size of their existing family. While adoption is a great option for couples to use, some parents wish to have a biological connection with their child and care for them through conception as well. Thankfully, medical advances have allowed families to have children through in vitro fertilization (IVF) using donor eggs. Egg donation is a treatment for infertile women who wish to physically bear a child. While this is not a brand new technology, it has continued to improve over the years. According to data from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART), there was a 50.7% success rate for live births using donor eggs in the U.S. in 2017, proving that this version of IVF is a valid option for many families.

Requirements of the Recipient and Donor

For obvious reasons, IVF egg donation is not a parent’s first choice when trying to create a family; however, it is a good option for those who need help doing so. The process can cost a significant amount of money and involves a fair amount of medical treatments. This form of IVF is typically used for women with diminished egg quantity and quality. These include women with: 

  • Premature ovarian failure;
  • Poor response to ovarian stimulation;
  • Poor egg quality;
  • Low antral follicle counts on ultrasounds;
  • High day 3 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels; and/or
  • Advanced age.

Donors have a long list of requirements that they must meet before they are eligible. Females must be between the ages of 21 and 29 and be a U.S. citizen or have the legal right to work in the U.S. There are many health qualifications that must be met. The women must have a healthy BMI, no reproductive abnormalities, two ovaries, an excellent family health history, not be using any form of birth control and be a non-smoker/drug user. The woman must also have some form of college or trade/vocational certification.

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How Do I Know If My Loved One Needs a Legal Guardian?Minors are accustomed to having a legal guardian who makes large decisions for them. While they may have some say in the matter, the final decision is left to the older party. Unfortunately, some individuals must experience this more than once in their life. Older people or those with disabilities often have to allow a legal guardian to take on the “official” responsibility of legal decision-making. Being the party taking on the guardianship responsibility can be emotionally and physically taxing, but recognizing that your loved one needs help could save them from making irreparable legal decisions.

Signs That Your Loved One Needs Help

Guardianships are most commonly issued when someone has a mental disability or when someone’s age affects their clarity of mind. However, just because a person has mental disabilities does not mean that they should have a legal guardian. The purpose of legal guardianship is to make legal decisions for another person when they have the inability to do so. Thus, potential guardians should evaluate their loved one and their ability to engage in the decision-making process. The Illinois Guardianship & Advocacy Commission suggests answering the following four questions to gauge your loved one’s mental capacity for making decisions:

  1. Do they understand that a particular decision needs to be made?
  2. Do they understand the options available in any given decision?
  3. Do they understand the consequences of each available option?
  4. After making the decision, are they able to properly inform appropriate parties?

My Loved One Needs Help, But Can I Be Their Guardian?

There are regulations on who can act as a legal guardian to ensure that the individual’s best interests are upheld. Any individual who is over the age of 18, has a “sound” mind, has not been convicted of a serious crime, and is deemed acceptable by the court is eligible to be a legal guardian. Potential guardians must be able to provide the court with proof of an active and suitable course of action for the individual. In some cases, agencies may be appointed as legal guardians – excluding banking institutions and those providing residential services to the individual. Whether private or public, agencies can often provide more active guardianship than the individual’s loved one since they do not have the same emotional ties to the individual. However, family or friends can make the best guardians in some cases since their desire to make good decisions for the individual has a personal connection behind it. 

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Can I Get Financial Help With My Adoption?It is no secret that adoption is expensive. Many families wish they could adopt but simply cannot afford the additional expenses that are tied to adoption. According to Child Welfare Information Gateway, private agency adoptions can cost anywhere from $5,000 to $40,000. This price tag does not include any of the costs associated with raising a child, which can steer couples hoping to start a family away from considering adoption. Foster care adoption is the most financially-friendly option available to potential parents. In many cases, the adoption gets funded by the state, with few fees involved aside from an attorney’s assistance in the legal process. There are even some instances that allow adopting couples to qualify for continued compensation.

What is Title IV-E Adoption Assistance?

Unfortunately, foster children get adopted at a much lower rate, especially those with special needs. The medical expenses or other costs that are unique to a special needs child can keep couples from considering taking them in. What many do not realize is that adoption assistance is available to parents of special needs children adopted through the foster system. Federal adoption assistance is known as Title IV-E, whereas state assistance is non-IV-E. Both forms of assistance can provide monthly maintenance payments, medical assistance, and other support until the child turns 18 or, in some cases, 21 years old. There are three criteria that must be met to qualify for special needs determination:

  1. The state determines that the child cannot or should not return to their birth parents’ home;
  2. A specific factor, condition, or a combination of the two has made the child more difficult to place for adoption; and
  3. Unsuccessful efforts have been made to place the child without using adoption assistance.

What Makes a Child Eligible for Title IV-E?

The eligibility listed above must be met before a child will be considered to receive Title IV-E adoption assistance. There are five qualifications tied to Title IV-E; however, only one must be met to qualify for the assistance:

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Posted on in DCFS

What Happens If I Report Child Abuse?Feeling the need to report child abuse is a serious and uncomfortable situation to encounter. Many people will ignore signs that may resemble abuse because they do not want to misinterpret what actually happened. Reports state that of incidents of abuse go unreported, leaving most abused children in dangerous homes. While it can feel as if you are intruding on someone else’s business, reporting suspected abuse can save a child from a lifetime of trauma.

 

Types of Abuse

  1. Physical Abuse: This form of abuse is fairly self-explanatory and easier to spot than others. Any form of physical injury that is not accidental is considered physical abuse. Some children may be able to hide their injuries as “playing rough outside”; however, constant bodily injuries could be a sign that the child may be suffering from physical harm at home.
  2. Sexual Abuse: Sexual abuse can be performed by a parent or an older child. This can be difficult to detect as children do not fully understand the problems with the assaults. That is one of the many reasons why sexual abuse goes unreported. According to Childhelp, 20.7 percent of adults report having been sexually abused as a child.
  3. Emotional Abuse: Many adults may think it is questionable to report this form of abuse; however, it is just as detrimental to children as other forms of abuse. Emotional abuse can include name calling, insulting, threatening violence, or withholding love or support. Some may see this as “tough parenting,” but repeated abuse can cause damage to a child over time.

What Happens If I Report a Parent?

If you suspect a child is being abused, it is important to specify the type of abuse and provide the child’s information. Child Protective Services will meet with the parents to assess the situation and see if a problem is going on. One report does not result in a child’s removal from their home. CPS will provide the family with resources such as counseling, mental health/drug abuse services, training on financial responsibility, and parental education. If the child is in serious danger, they will be removed from the household for their own safety. While it may seem that you are breaking a family apart, the child’s safety is most important.

I Was Reported to DCFS – What Do I Do Next?

Being reported to the Department of Child and Family Services can be extremely stressful and frustrating for a responsible parent. It may seem like the reporter is out to get you or that DCFS is disregarding your history as a good parent. Many reports do not continue past the initial checkup, but it is important to be prepared if the case goes to court. If you have been accused of child abuse and need legal assistance, contact our experienced Glen Ellyn, Illinois, DCFS lawyers at A. Traub & Associates. Call 630-426-0196 for a free consultation. 

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What is an Adoption Home Study and How Can I Prepare?The adoption process is quite lengthy and requires lots of preparation in order for you to be ready to immediately care for your new child. A home study is one step of many in the adoption process. The purpose of a home study is to ensure that you and your spouse are good potential parents who can provide a child with a safe and happy home. The home study is more than just a house inspection. The inspector will also spend time interviewing both parents to gauge their character and parenting ability. This part of the adoption process can be extremely nerve-wracking but is also the part of adoption that you have the most control over.

What Should I Bring to My Home Study?

Home studies vary depending on the type of adoption that you and your spouse decide is best. However, the primary goal and document requirements remain fairly consistent. Home studies often take longer than a single visit, sometimes taking months to fully complete. The best way to reduce the amount of time spent in the home inspection is to educate yourself on the process and have the necessary documents in hand. These can include:

  • Certified copies of birth certificates;
  • Adoption decrees for any other adopted children;
  • A marriage certificate;
  • Death certificates of former spouses;
  • Divorce papers for you and your spouse;
  • Employment and income verification;
  • Proof of life and health insurance;
  • A list of assets;
  • Debt information; and
  • Mortgage or rent information. 

The interview also requires physical exam results as well as a public health and fire inspection for your home. While the paperwork may seem daunting, it is crucial that you bring multiple copies of each form to avoid scheduling additional appointments. 

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The Pros and Cons of Adult GuardianshipWhen most people think of guardianship, they imagine something similar to adoption. They begin to take care of a child in a similar fashion to the way they would care for their biological child. While this is one form of guardianship, adult guardianship is also fairly common. Becoming someone’s legal guardian gives you the legal authority to assist that individual with their affairs. This is typically done to help an adult make decisions when they are incapable of doing so themselves. It can be difficult to take on this role, especially if the adults are your parents. However, when debilitating diseases such as Alzheimer’s affect the adult’s mental ability, it can be crucial to take on this position. 

Benefits of Guardianship

One of the primary benefits of legal guardianship is the peace of mind for everyone involved. Not only will you feel more secure and comfortable with the adult you are guiding but you will also feel personal reassurance. Guardianships are typically a last resort for family members when they see that their loved one is not able to make legal decisions on their own. That being said, once the unpredictability is removed from the situation it can take away the stress for everyone involved. Becoming a legal guardian also gives clear legal authority for instances in which it is necessary. When third-parties become involved, it is much easier to have a designated leader rather than someone who is unsure and incapable of making large decisions.

Disadvantages of Guardianship

Much like any other legal process, officially declaring guardianship over another adult involves a lot of time and effort from all parties. An attorney must be included in the process along with the signing of legal papers and court involvement. Although this can seem daunting to some, an experienced attorney can lift the stress of the situation off of everyone’s shoulders. The process as a whole can be very time consuming, yet worth the wait. If you are concerned that your loved one needs someone to help them with legal processes, it is well worth the time it takes to obtain your new title as legal guardian.

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Lombard family law attorneyIf you are a parent who is in the midst of a divorce, you probably have many questions about the future. “Where will I live?” “Will I be able to make enough money?” “What will happen to my kids?” As you probably know, the laws regarding child custody have undergone substantial changes in the last few years. The changes were designed to reduce competitiveness and friction between divorcing or unmarried parents and to encourage cooperative parenting. But what if your former partner is uninterested in taking responsibility for your child? Or, what if it scares you to leave your children with him or her? Fortunately, it is still possible for you to seek an amended version of what used to be called “sole custody” of your child.

New Names for Legal Custody and Physical Custody

At the beginning of 2016, sweeping reforms to the Illinois Marriage and Dissolution of Marriage Act (IMDMA) took effect. The updates largely eliminated the term “child custody” and replaced it with the more nebulous phrase “allocation of parental responsibilities.” Under the amended law, parental responsibilities are divided into two primary areas. “Significant decision-making authority” replaced the previous concept of legal custody, and “parenting time” replaced the old idea of physical custody. Sole and joint custody were two different types of legal custody arrangements as they were established to clarify which parent or parents had the responsibility to make important decisions about the child’s life.

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Lombard family law attorneysSince 2016, child custody has been formally known as the allocation of parental responsibilities in the state of Illinois. If you and your child’s other parent are involved in a dispute over how such responsibilities should be divided, you may have had several discussions with your child about the situation. In fact, your child may even very strong feelings about where he or she wants to live and how much time should be spent with each parent.

When you and the other parent cannot reach an agreement on your own, the court will be required to step in a make custody decisions for you. In doing so, the court will hear from both you and your former partner, but what about your child? Does he or she get the chance to be heard? The answer, in most cases, is yes, but the court is by no means obligated to give the child what he or she wants.

A Combination of Variables

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Lombard family law attorneyOn June 26, 2015, the United States Supreme Court ruled that states could no longer legally ban gay individuals from getting married. Since then, many same-sex couples have married, and some have chosen to start families of their own. Being a same-sex couple can bring up certain legal complications when children are involved, but fortunately, Illinois has measures in place to help potential parents obtain parental rights. One method some same-sex couples use to legally adopt a child into their family is second-parent adoption, also called co-parent adoption.

Second Parent Adoption Does Not Require Terminating Anyone’s Parental Rights

In most circumstances, when a person wishes to adopt a child, the child’s original parent or parents must terminate their parental rights. For example, when a woman places a baby up for adoption after giving birth, she signs documents which relinquish her rights to that child. A second-parent adoption is unique in that a parent can adopt a child without the child’s other parent losing their parental rights.

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Lombard divorce attorneyMost of us know at least one married couple who are living separately. In some situations, spouses may experiment with a “trial separation” while in others, they are living on their own as they prepare for a divorce. Living separately is a common precursor to divorce, but there are some things you should know about separating before you or your spouse moves out.

What the Law Says

Prior to 2016, the law in Illinois required a couple to live separate and apart for a minimum of six months before they could pursue a divorce on the grounds of irreconcilable differences. The standard requirement, in fact, was two years, but if the spouses agreed, the separation period could be reduced to six months. Today, a couple can only seek a divorce on the grounds of irreconcilable differences in Illinois, but the separation requirement has been eliminated altogether. The law was changed in 2016 to allow couples to pursue a happier post-divorce future without having to simply watch the calendar for months. If the spouses do not agree on the divorce, however, a six-month separation period is considered by the court to be irrebuttable proof that the marriage has broken down beyond repair.

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Lombard family law attorneyIf you are a parent who is getting divorced or planning to, you are probably concerned about how you and your soon-to-be-ex-spouse will raise your children. If you plan on raising the kids together through a shared parenting scenario, you should know that there are some unique methods of co-parenting which have helped many families. These growing trends offer an alternative to traditional post-divorce living situations.

Nesting Arrangements

The majority of couples who get divorced end up living separately from each other. The most common living arrangement for parents who get divorced is for children to visit each parent at their home. Some experts find this arrangement to be especially burdensome on the children who are splitting their time between two homes. As an alternative, some parents are choosing to use what some call “the bird’s nest” strategy: The children live in one home and the parents take turns living there. For example, a parent may stay with the children one week in the “nest” home and then the other parent comes to stay with the children the following week. When the parents are not at the nest home, they are living in their own individual home. While many find this co-parenting strategy to be effective, it can also be quite expensive since it usually requires the couple to finance a third home for the children.

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Lombard family law attorneyThe term “parental alienation” refers to the process through which a person psychologically manipulates a child into having ill feelings toward their parent. This most often occurs when parents divorce or separate. Parental alienation is a form of psychological abuse and it can be devastating to both the child and his or her parents. There is even evidence to suggest that a child who has been manipulated in this way will have a higher chance of mental and physical illness. Parental alienation is inexcusable.

Why and How Does Parental Alienation Occur?

Parental alienation most often happens to children whose parents are separating or divorcing. Of course, it can also be an issue for children of parents who were never married to one another. When the parents are in conflict, they can start to bring their child or children into the conflict. A parent who is jealous or angry toward the other parent begins to encourage their child to take “their side.”

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DuPage County family law attorneysUnfaithfulness in a marriage is unfortunately common. In fact, surveys show that one or both spouses admit to cheating in one-third of marriages. Men admit to cheating at an average of 22 percent, while approximately 14 percent of women admit to cheating. As any couple who has dealt with infidelity knows, cheating can take a serious toll on a relationship or marriage. There is no surefire way to predict if a partner will cheat on their significant other, but new research has shed light on the reasons that some people cheat.

Researchers from Texas Tech University and the University of Nevada Reno studied the childhoods of adults that ended up cheating on their significant other. They defined cheating as “concealment of behaviors and the resulting emotional fallout” it causes. The researchers discovered that individuals who had parents who were unfaithful to each other were more likely to cheat on their partner as adults. According to the researchers, social learning theory accounts for this trend. Basically, children whose parents cheated on each other are more likely to cheat as adults. The research team found that people whose parents were unfaithful were more likely to accept the favorability of infidelity. This made them more likely to be unfaithful themselves in future relationships.

How Parents Talk to Kids About Cheating Matters

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Posted on in Domestic Violence

Lombard family law attorneyThe recent allegations of sexual harassment or rape against many influential individuals have put the issues of harassment and abuse in the spotlight more than ever before. Important people such as President Donald Trump, Senator Al Franken, actors Kevin Spacey and Sylvester Stallone, and film producer Harvey Weinstein have been accused of forcing unwanted sexual contact onto victims. These allegations sparked a fury of media attention and have encouraged more victims of sexual assault to report the crime against them. Time Magazine even dedicated their “Person of the Year” title to “the silence breakers”: those women and men who came out with their own stories of violence, intimidation or harassment. Much of the attention regarding assault and violence has centered around inappropriate sexual encounters between acquaintances or coworkers. Sadly, many men and women who are victims of abuse or assault are suffering at the hands of their own spouse or romantic partner. This type of abuse is called domestic violence, and it is just as serious as any other type of abuse.

Warning Signs of Domestic Violence

Domestic violence, also called intimate partner violence or relationship abuse, is defined as a pattern of behaviors used by one person to maintain power and control over their romantic partner. Anyone can be a victim or a perpetrator of domestic violence. Such abuse does not discriminate based on age, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic status. Often, women are assumed to be the only victims of domestic violence, but this is not true. Men can also be victims of abuse at the hands of their spouse and other family members. Perpetrators of domestic violence might:

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Lombard family law attorneysPeople do not stay in one place as often as they once did. With the global economy entirely interconnected and the job market in a seemingly constant state of flux, family moves are more common. However, so are divorces. In Illinois, the laws regarding the allocation of parental responsibilities—formerly called child custody—provide requirements that must be met before children can be moved a significant distance from their current home.

A Child’s “Home State”

For the purposes of parenting plans, a child must have a “home state.” This is the state in which a court would have jurisdiction to decide cases involving the child. Illinois is a child’s home state when (1) that child has lived in Illinois for six months (or since birth, if the child is not six months old yet), and (2) the child has no other home state, and/or the child (or their parent) has significant connections to the state. If a parent intends to move to another state and take their child with them, the child’s home state will change.

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Posted on in Child Support

Lombard family law attorneysUntil just a few months ago, Illinois courts calculated child support as a percentage of the income of the parent with fewer parental responsibilities—referred to in the past as the non-custodial parent. Since July 1, 2017, however, a new law has brought child support guidelines in Illinois up to date with modern trends and started improving the lives of all parties involved.

The Old Child Support Law

The previous law in Illinois has long been criticized for being inequitable, with not enough potential exemptions taken into account, and an alleged unfair burden on the non-custodial parent. Under the old guidelines, there were two primary factors in determining the amount of support to be paid: the income of the non-custodial parent and the number of children to be supported.

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Posted on in Divorce

Lombard divorce attorneysIn the past, divorce proceedings were often heavily biased against wives, for a multitude of societal and anthropological reasons. Society has changed over time, as one might expect, but there are still very different issues that women face after a divorce than those affecting men. Women—especially older women—are often put in positions they are unfamiliar with and may require help in handling.

Financial Issues

One of the major issues that many women face, especially older women, is that financial concerns are often foreign territory. Especially in marriages among older people, finances are traditionally the responsibility of men, so women after divorce may find themselves at a disadvantage in handling their money. An experienced divorce attorney may be able to advise on how to keep your assets safe. For example, a living trust may be an effective way to keep your assets in a form that cannot be accessed by creditors.

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DuPage County family law attorneysIndividuals and couples who are interested in adopting children obviously are advised to take the time to familiarize themselves with the Illinois Adoption Act (IAA) However, there are other areas of law in which the IAA can provide valuable input. One of the most common is when a parent or couple’s parental rights are at issue, especially when deciding whether or not a parent or parents should keep their parental rights. The IAA can provide guidance on such issues.

The Concept of Unfitness

Normally, Illinois courts prefer that if one or both of a child’s birth parents is to lose their parental rights, there should be another person able to step into the parental role. The state works very diligently to ensure that children have two parents as often as possible. The one rare occasion in which this does not always happen is when a parent is declared unfit under the Adoption Act. In these unusual instances, it is deemed more important to remove a child from a potentially dangerous situation. Sometimes, however, even if a parent is found unfit, their parental rights will not be terminated unless someone else is willing to adopt the child.

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Lombard family law attorneyIn the overwhelming majority of cases, when your or your spouse’s parental rights are terminated, there is no getting them back. Normally, if parental rights are involuntarily taken away, it means that evidence of abuse or neglect has been discovered, after which it is considered too dangerous to allow the child to remain in your home. However, if there are other reasons for termination, such as a parent’s abrupt deportation, it may be possible to have the determination reversed, dependent on several different factors.

Illinois Law

Illinois is one of only a handful of states to even countenance the possibility of reinstatement of parental rights after their termination. The law holds that if filed by the Department of Children & Family Services (DCFS) or by the minor child themselves, parental rights may be reinstated if certain conditions are met, namely that the motion is supported by “clear and convincing evidence.” This is not subjective; it is a specific burden of proof that a court will insist upon before granting the motion.

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